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Divine Providenceand the Problem of Evil

 
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ngolden



Joined: 23 Sep 2015
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 25, 2015 9:41 am    Post subject: Divine Providenceand the Problem of Evil Reply with quote

If anyone is interested, let me know and I will try to get a link to a theology paper I wrote titled: DIVINE PROVIDENCE: AN EXAMINATION OF GOD’S ENGAGEMENT AND CARE IN THE LIFE OF THE BELIEVER
With the thesis statement: This paper will argue that despite the reality of evil, God is actively engaged in the lives of believers and by His divine providence cares for them.
The paper responds to what is generally referred to as "the problem of evil" which lies at the heart of the matter - a question that has troubled many including myself and still does, because of the difficulty of seeing people suffer. Although it comes from a Christian perspective, it is not dogmatic and introduces some basic theology regarding the different theological perspectives of Deism, Calvinism, and Arminianism (free will).
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phillip j why



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PostPosted: Sat Aug 20, 2016 11:57 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I am interested.
I think this would be good to read.
You make things easier to understand.
I await your response, with boisterous intrigue
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ngolden



Joined: 23 Sep 2015
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PostPosted: Sat Aug 20, 2016 12:44 pm    Post subject: Divine Providence Reply with quote

It looks like there is not a word count limit for forum posts so I cut and pasted it - It does weird things to the footnotes but hopefully it will make sense. Boisterously hoping your eyes don't glaze over Smile

DIVINE PROVIDENCE: AN EXAMINATION OF GOD’S ENGAGEMENT AND CARE IN THE LIFE OF THE BELIEVER

Thesis Statement
This paper will argue that despite the reality of evil, God is actively engaged in the lives of believers and by His divine providence cares for them.


I. Introduction
This paper will argue that despite the reality of evil, God is actively engaged in the lives of believers and by His divine providence cares for them. As with so many theological terms, the definition of providence may be interpreted according to different categories. A general definition for providence could be God’s care for His creation. In Scripture, three basic classes are applied to the notion of providence: passages in relation to salvation which are referred to as soteriological passages, passages on God’s general governance which are referred to as common grace passages, and passages that defend the ways of God despite the problem of evil, which are known as theodicy passages.1 A fourth class may be added, for Calvary is the greatest example of God’s providence, in His reconciling all of creation to Himself through His son Jesus Christ.
An example of a soteriological passage can be found in Philippians 2:13, “for it is God who works in you to will and to act in order to fulfill his good purpose” with sanctification in view. In common grace passages are found the belief that God governs justly over all. Matthew 5:45b expresses the idea that God reigns over evil and good alike when Jesus says, “He causes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.” It is this confidence in God’s lordship that allows Christians to be content regardless of their personal circumstances. Theodicy passages are those parts of Scripture that deal with the existence of evil which defend God’s activities in the world despite its presence. An example of theodicy is found in the book of Job which wrestles with Job’s sufferings and God’s sovereignty; the presence of evil is not a consequence of a specific sin by Job, yet he is afflicted.2
____________________
Note: All Scriptural References are from the New International Version

1 Michael S. Horton, The Christian Faith: a Systematic Theology for Pilgrims On the Way (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011), 350-351.

2 Ibid., 352-353.

The context of this paper will primarily focus on the third and fourth classes, in that God in His sovereignty is holy and just regardless of the presence of evil, and further, it is through His providence that those who believe and commit their lives to Him will ultimately prevail over evil through His Son Christ Jesus. John 16:33 points out the reality of evil but also the solution, “I have told you these things, so that in me you may have peace. In this world you will have trouble. But take heart! I have overcome the world.” In fact, it is this knowledge that validates the first two classes and proclaims the Gospel message.

II. History of Providence and Deism
Historically, Christian beliefs regarding providence have varied, although each relate primarily to their belief in the degree of God’s engagement with the world and the extent of His sovereignty in the world. Each belief interacts with the problem of evil in the world in a different way. Three prevalent schemes that are still in existence today are Deism, Arminianism and Calvinism. Froese and Bader’s comment, “The extent to which we believe that God interacts with us and offers us blessings has a profound effect on what we think is right and wrong and what we feel we should be doing with our lives” speaks to the importance of interaction with God, and how the range of that interaction affects a person’s worldview.3
Deism may be defined in regard to God’s relationship with the world as that of Creator only; God would be labeled as first cause with no further involvement after His original creation. In deism is found the classic clockmaker analogy defined as early as Nicolaus of Oresmes in the fourteenth century. In the beginning, God wound up the clock of the world and the history of the world continues without His involvement. Lord Herbert, who is known as the father of deism,
_______________________________________
3 Paul Froese and Christopher Bader, AMERICA’S FOUR GODS, What We Say About God-& What That Says About Us (New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2010), 5.

defines five doctrines: belief in a supreme being, recognition of the need to worship, the need for ethical conduct, the need for repentance from sins, and the existence of divine rewards on earth and in heaven.4 Deism conflicts with orthodox Christianity in that it is not concerned with the biblical view. Science and reason can explain the natural order as if it were run by a machine, excluding the need for a divine explanation. It is only conceptually different from atheism in that it does not deny the existence of God, only His interaction with the world.5 Deism was popular in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and was the view held by many of our United States forefathers including George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Consequently, although deism is not widespread, its influence which focuses on seeking explanations with analogies to machines is still in evidence today.6 In response to providence and deism, Horton writes, “deism excludes the possibility of miraculous divine intervention-either in judgment or grace.” Deism suppresses the relationship that God intends to have with His creatures.7 From a deistic viewpoint, there is not a problem of evil because God is not engaged with His creation. What happens is simply the course of history being played out by humanity with a disinterested God that does not participate.

III. Providence and Arminianism
To understand the Arminian view of providence, analyzing their view of foreknowledge is helpful. For the Arminian, “the predetermination of the destiny of individuals is based on God’s foreknowledge of the way in which they will either freely reject Christ or freely accept
____________________
4 Walter A. Elwell, ed., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001), 329.

5 John S. Feinberg, No One Like Him: the Doctrine of God (Wheaton: Crossway, 2006), 61.

6 Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 330.

7 Horton, The Christian Faith, 40.

him.”8 Simply put, for the Arminian, foreknowledge is just knowledge; it does not predetermine or cause a person’s actions, although it knows what those actions will be. God’s foreknowledge is exhaustive but not causal. Coming from this perspective, it seems that God’s providence is limited by the free will of His creatures. Thus, when it comes to a discussion of the problem of evil from an Arminian viewpoint, it is easy to understand the consequences of sin regarding depraved humanity making poor choices. John Sanders represents this viewpoint in his book The God Who Risks9 when he writes that “God’s ‘plans’ are better seen as overarching goals or destinations, which allow for considerable flexibility, rather than a set of detailed blueprints.”10 He points out that God set limits from the beginning when He told Adam and Eve not to eat of the tree.11 God gave Adam and Eve the freedom to respond by their own decision but He also gave them consequences for going outside of the limits He set. An Arminian viewpoint would contend that while God already knew what the results of their choice would be, Adam and Eve were free in how they decided to respond. They chose to disobey and their disobedience had unpleasant consequences, just as the result of sin does today. Sanders observes that if God habitually vetoed the sinful acts of man, then His beloved creatures would be no more than automatons. God desires a reciprocal love that is not forced. “God cannot prevent all the evil in the world and still maintain the conditions of fellowship intended by his overarching purpose in
____________________
8 Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 97.

9 Sanders is an open theist. McCormack discusses the similarities of open theism and Arminiansim which are applicable to the current discussion but it is important to note that open theism radicalizes Arminianism and the two terms are not interchangeable. Bruce L. McCormack, ed., Engaging the Doctrine of God (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008), 206-207.

10 John Sanders, The God Who Risks: a Theology of Divine Providence, 2nd ed. (Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2007), 61.

11 Ibid., 44.

creation.”12 Feinberg writes in regards to the thought process of free will defenders, “God reasoned that it was worth putting up with the possibility and actuality of us using freedom to do evil, because he preferred to have creatures who love and obey him because they want to rather than because they are forced to do so.”13 Grudem sums up the Arminian view in their belief that God’s goals are achieved not through specific details since he does not force our voluntary choices, but rather, that He responds to our choices in a way that ultimately accomplishes His purposes.14

IV. Providence and Calvinism
An important aspect of the Calvinist view of providence is that of concurrence: “the simultaneity of divine and human agency in specific actions and events.” Affirming soli Deo gloria does not deny the role of humans, but when a doctor heals a patient he is the secondary cause – the primary cause is God.15 McCormack notes that concurrence is cooperation – how God interacts with rational creatures in order to insure His will is done.16 Calvin summarized his position as “the will of God is the one principal and all-high cause of all things in heaven and on earth!”17 Feinberg comments regarding God’s sovereignty that He has “chosen at once the whole
interconnected sequence of events and actions that have and will occur in our world.”18 God
____________________
12 Sanders, The God Who Risks, 268-269.

13 Feinberg, No One Like Him, 785.

14 Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 338.

15 Horton, The Christian Faith, 356.

16 Bruce L. McCormack, ed., Engaging the Doctrine of God (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008), 326.

17 Terrance Tiessen, Providence & Prayer: How Does God Work in the World? (Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2000), 234-235.

18 Ibid., 234.

governs the world He has made, preserving the natural order and caring for every single creature.19 Grudem summarizes the Calvinist approach to the problem of evil in a series of statements:
“God uses all things to fulfill His purposes and even uses evil for His glory and for our good (Romans 8:28 )

Nevertheless, God never does evil, and is never to be blamed for evil (James 1:13-14)
God rightfully blames and judges moral creatures for the evil they do (Isaiah 66:3-4)
Evil is real, not an illusion, and we should never do evil, for it will always harm us and others (Matthew 6:13)
In spite of all of the foregoing statements, we have to come to the point where we confess that we do not understand how it is that God can ordain that we carry out evil deeds and yet hold us accountable for them and not be blamed Himself.” Scripture teaches these things but does not explain how.20
In regards to free will, Grudem writes that people make willing choices that have real effects but “an absolute ‘freedom,’ totally free of God’s control is simply not possible in a world providentially sustained and directed by God himself.”21 The Calvinist view is expressed beautifully in the story of Stonewall Jackson and how through his belief in the complete sovereignty of God maintained his tranquility as a battle raged all around. When asked how he could be so calm, Jackson replied, “my religious belief teaches me to feel as safe in battle as in bed. God has fixed the time for my death; I do not concern myself with that, but to be always ready, whenever it may overtake me. That is the way all men should live; then all men would be ____________________
19 Tiessen, Providence & Prayer, 234.

20 Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 327-330.

21 Ibid., 331.

equally brave.”22

V. Prayer as a Manifestation of God’s Providence
Prayer has many facets in the Christian life. It is in response to both a need for God and gratitude to Him for His redemptive work. The many roles of prayer involve petition, intercession, adoration, thanksgiving and confession. Prayer takes many forms including praise, asking forgiveness, making requests, and wrestling with God. Bloesch correctly comments on the purpose of prayer as “sharing with God our needs and desires so that we might be more fully conformed to his ultimate will and purpose,” advancing His kingdom for His glory.23
Erickson notes the dilemma faced when considering the role of prayer within the providence of God. The question asked is in regards to its purpose; does prayer accomplish anything? If prayer has an effect on outcomes, what does that say about God’s plan being established? But if God’s plan is inalterable then what good is it to pray? 24 Kaufman expresses the deistic view on prayer in that, “There is no God who ‘walks with me and talks with me’ in close interpersonal communication.” For Kaufman and those who assume a deistic viewpoint, God’s actions are a part of his overarching plan with no regard to the needs or pleas of humanity.25 The Calvinist view asserts that prayer has a definite role in the outcome of events. Horton notes that “prayer presupposes that God is sovereign over every contingency of nature and history.”26 It is through prayer that God ordained significant changes result. Our
____________________
22 Dennis W. Jowers, ed., Four Views On Divine Providence (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011), 25.

23 Elwell, Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, 947.

24 Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Academic, 2007), 430.

25 Tiessen, Providence & Prayer, 37.

26 Horton, The Christian Faith, 357.

intercessory prayer may be the means in which God brings about changes. John 16:24, “Until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive, and your joy will be complete.”27 Edward M. Bounds writes in His work The Necessity of Prayer, “Only God can move mountains, but faith and prayer move God.”28 Aquinas said, “We do not pray in order to change the decree of divine providence, rather we pray in order to acquire by petitionary prayer what God has determined would be obtained by our prayers.”29 Erickson notes that numerous times in Scripture, God does not act until humans act in faith first, working in partnership with Him. According to Erickson, God not only wills the end, He wills the means. Erickson also wisely comments that like Jesus in the garden, believers will not always receive what is asked for.30 Their best response is also like Jesus in Luke 22:42, “Father, if you are willing, take this cup from me; yet not my will, but yours be done.”
From an Arminian viewpoint, the outcome is similar to Calvinism, but it arrives at the same conclusion from a different perspective. For the Arminian, prayer may influence God to act or to change His mind, resulting in a different outcome, not because both the petition and outcome were foreordained by God, but because the person chose to petition God through His own volition and God responded to the person’s plea. Rather than God’s will, the plea was the cause; but the plea must be aligned with God’s will that is still within His overarching plan to be effective. Piricilli writes from the Arminian position,
“If we speak of God’s eternal and absolute ‘mind,’ he does not repent or change it. But if we
____________________
27 Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 334.

28 Edward M. Bounds, The Necessity of Prayer, Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College, http://www.ccel.org (accessed 08/10/2012).
29 Tiessen, Providence & Prayer, 101.

30 Erickson, Christian Theology, 430-431.

speak of his actions in time, indicating his relationship to us, he does. He responds, in other words, to our meeting or not meeting the conditions he establishes for our relationship to him.”31
Pirelli points out that the grave error of the open view is that it does not support God’s foreknowledge nor His sovereign will.32 In the end, prayer is a means in which believers actively engage with God and He expresses His providential care for them in response. God is omniscient, immutable and omnipotent and ultimately in regards to the effectiveness of prayer, God’s will be done.33

VI. Reconciliation with God through His Son Jesus Christ

When discussing the providence of God, one can’t help but be amazed at the Creator’s ultimate act of providence: God’s engagement with and care for His people that took place at the cross. The Bible is the story of His redemptive plan for humanity that climaxes in the birth, death and resurrection of His Son Jesus Christ and summarized in Colossians 1:19-22,
“For God was pleased to have all his fullness dwell in him, and through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether things on earth or things in heaven, by making peace through his blood, shed on the cross. Once you were alienated from God and were enemies in your minds because of your evil behavior. But now he has reconciled you by Christ’s physical body through death to present you holy in his sight, without blemish and free from accusation.”
Horton comments, “Ultimately, then, a Christian defense of providence must always return to Christ and his victory over sin and death.” The reason Christians know that God is working all things for their salvation despite difficult circumstances is a result of His Promise.
____________________
31 Robert E. Picirilli, “An Arminian Response to John Sander’s The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society Volume 44, No. 3 (September 2001): 487.

32 Ibid., 471.

33 Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 391.

As God Himself has shown at Calvary, He has been most active and victorious in the moment of greatest injustice.34 In His providential care, the destiny of believers as God’s children are found at the resurrection of their Savior and His victory over evil; His atonement removes the consequences of sin.35 Erickson sums it up well when he writes, “God is a fellow sufferer with us of the evil of this world, and consequently is able to deliver us from evil. What a measure of love this is! Anyone who would impugn the goodness of God for allowing sin and consequently evil must measure that charge against the teaching of Scripture that God himself became the victim of evil so that he and we might be victors over evil.”36

VII. Application For the Church Today

The doctrine of providence is one of comfort for the Christian who despite the presence of evil, can rest in the will of God for both their earthly journey and their salvation. But Scripture is also clear that God calls His people to action – God works through humans in His providential management and they are still responsible for their deeds; their actions have both real and significant results.37 2 Samuel 10:12 is a good example of being called to action while understanding that ultimately it is God’s will that will prevail, “Be strong, and let us fight bravely for our people and the cities of our God. The LORD will do what is good in his sight.”
Grudem offers three practical suggestions as to how the Christian today can apply the doctrine of providence:
Trust in God and don’t be fearful (Matthew 10:29-31), thank God for all good things
____________________
34 Horton, The Christian Faith, 372.

35 Jowers, Four Views On Divine Providence, 163.
36 Erickson, Christian Theology, 456.

37 Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 333.

(Psalm 103:2), and understand that God is sovereign, chance is nonexistent (Romans 8:28 ).38
Because God is actively engaged in the lives of believers and He is sovereign, Christians can access His providence in all circumstances through prayer, knowing that they are communicating personally with their God, who loves them. God also speaks to them through Scripture by the power of the Holy Spirit. Howard sums up God’s will in regards to humanity, “Though we are always in God’s determined will (His plan), we may or may not be in His desired will (His pleasure).”39 The presence of evil may be explained by the human violation of His desired will, but His ultimate plan can never be circumscribed. In order to discern God’s desired will, believers should be open to all of the ways He may choose to communicate, Mark 8:18, “Do you have eyes but fail to see, and ears but fail to hear? And don’t you remember?”
Being able to fully reconcile finite human understanding of providence in its divine mystery with God’s sovereignty and human freedom may never be possible, but the Christian can rest in the assurance that God cares for them and will guide them. This knowledge can be applied by trusting in Him despite any circumstances that occur. The following Scriptures assure the believer of the Holy Spirit’s guidance and of the power of prayer, inviting peace in the full confidence of God’s care:
John 14:26, “But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.”
Phil 4:6-7, “Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God; and the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.”
____________________
38 Grudem, Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, 337.

39 Douglas S. Huffman, ed., How Then Should We Choose?: Three Views On God's Will and Decision Making (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2009), 18.

VIII. Conclusion
This paper demonstrates that despite the reality of evil, God is actively engaged in the lives of people and by His divine providence cares for them, even before the day they are born! God’s providence is at work in a marvelous way in the birth of a child as expressed in Psalm 139:13-17:
“For You formed my inward parts;
You covered me in my mother’s womb.
I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made;
Marvelous are Your works,
And that my soul knows very well.
My frame was not hidden from You,
When I was made in secret,
And skillfully wrought in the lowest parts of the earth.
Your eyes saw my substance, being yet unformed.
And in Your book they all were written,
The days fashioned for me,
When as yet there were none of them.
How precious also are Your thoughts to me, O God!
How great is the sum of them!”

Horton writes, “The question is not whether God is involved in every aspect of our lives but how God is involved. Therefore, with respect to providence, the question is never whether causes are exclusively natural or supernatural, but whether God’s involvement in every moment is providential or miraculous.”40 While God formed each person and He cares for them on a daily basis, His ultimate act of involvement was His mission trip to earth when He came to save humanity from their sins and bring them the hope of eternal life with Him. Regardless of the approach to the doctrine of providence and the problem of evil - His resurrection is the ultimate victory over any evil in this world and the ultimate expression of love and care that God has for His creation as His redemptive plan is carried out according to His sovereign will.
____________________
40 Horton, The Christian Faith, 369-370.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Barker, Kenneth, ed. New International Version Study Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.

Bounds, Edward M. “The Necessity of Prayer.” Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. http://www.ccel.org (accessed 08/10/2012).

Bray, Gerald L. The Doctrine of God (Contours of Christian Theology). Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 1993.

Elwell, Walter A., ed. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.

Erickson, Millard J. Christian Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.

Feinberg, John S. No One Like Him: the Doctrine of God. Wheaton: Crossway, 2006.

Froese, Paul, and Christopher Bader. AMERICA’S FOUR GODS, What We Say About God- & What That Says About Us. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 2010.

Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: an Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994.

Horton, Michael S. The Christian Faith: a Systematic Theology For Pilgrims On the Way. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011.

Huffman, Douglas S., ed. How Then Should We Choose?: Three Views On God's Will and Decision Making. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2009.

Jowers, Dennis W., ed. Four Views On Divine Providence. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2011.

McCormack, Bruce L., ed. Engaging the Doctrine of God. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2008.

Picirilli, E. Robert. “An Arminian Response to John Sander’s The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society Volume 44:3 (September 2001): 467-491.

Sanders, John. The God Who Risks: a Theology of Divine Providence. 2nd ed. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2007.

Tiessen, Terrance. Providence & Prayer: How Does God Work in the World? Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2000.
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phillip j why



Joined: 15 Aug 2016
Posts: 133

PostPosted: Sat Aug 20, 2016 2:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I have often found it paradoxical that the question is asked whether god provides.
On an existential basis it cannot be questioned that God may not be involved in every aspect of day to day life.
God the creator creates the universe and all creatures, so even if that was the end of gods involvement, I argue that by creating the universe god lives with all creatures for all of every moment in time due to this fact.
Due to his act of creating.
Due to his act of love.
I like your argument.
Many thanks for sharing this with us.
Many commendations to your work.
If ever you need validation if your life, find it in your effort here.
Well done
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ngolden



Joined: 23 Sep 2015
Posts: 33

PostPosted: Sat Aug 20, 2016 7:13 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

phillip j why wrote:
I have often found it paradoxical that the question is asked whether god provides.
On an existential basis it cannot be questioned that God may not be involved in every aspect of day to day life.
God the creator creates the universe and all creatures, so even if that was the end of gods involvement, I argue that by creating the universe god lives with all creatures for all of every moment in time due to this fact.
Due to his act of creating.
Due to his act of love.
I like your argument.
Many thanks for sharing this with us.
Many commendations to your work.
If ever you need validation if your life, find it in your effort here.
Well done


phillip j why -

Thank you so much for your kind words, I found them very encouraging. I do agree with your assessment regarding God as creator. I believe that all of us are seeking Him whether we know it or not, for He created us to be in relationship with Him...Tim refers to Him as the Builder which I think is very apt.

You inspired me to respond in another topic under The Really Big Questions:

Jesus..the Man.

You may enjoy that one as well...thanks again for your comments - they blessed me muchly!
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